Present perfect continuous

Formando o "Present Perfect Continuous"

O "present perfect continuous" é composto por dois elementos: o "present perfect" do verbo 'to be' (have/has been), e o "present participle" do verbo principal (radical + "ing").

Sujeito has/have been radical + "ing"
She has been swimming

Afirmativa: She has been / She's been running.
Negativa: She hasn't been running.
Interrogativa : Has she been running?
Interrogativa negativa: Hasn't she been running?

Exemplo: "present perfect continuous" de "TO LIVE"
Afirmativa Negativa Interrogativa
I have been living I haven't been living Have I been living?
You have been living You haven't been living Have you been living?
He, she, it has been living He hasn't been living Has she been living?
We have been living We haven't been living Have we been living?
You have been living You haven't been living Have you been living?
They have been living They haven't been living Have they been living?

Funções do "present perfect continuous"

O tempo verbal "present perfect continuous" se refere a um período de tempo não específico situado entre o passado e o presente. O orador faz referência a algo que se iniciou, mas que talvez não tenha sido concluído naquele período de tempo. Ele está interessado tanto no processo quanto no resultado, e esse processo ainda poderá estar ocorrendo ou ter acabado de se encerrar.

Ações iniciadas no passado e que continuam ocorrendo no presente

She has been waiting for you all day (= ela ainda está esperando).
I've been working on this report since eight o'clock this morning (= e eu ainda não o finalizei).
They have been travelling since last October (= e ainda não voltaram para casa).

Ações que acabaram de ser concluídas, mas nosso interesse está nos seus resultados

She has been cooking since last night (= e a comida à mesa parece deliciosa).
It's been raining (= e as ruas ainda estão molhadas).
Someone's been eating my chips (= e eles estão na metade).

Verbos sem formas contínuas

Com verbos que não são normalmente utilizados na forma contínua, utilize o "simple present perfect". Por exemplo: I've wanted to visit China for years.
She's known Robert since she was a child.
I've hated that music since I first heard it.
I've heard a lot about you recently.
We've understood everything.
we've heard this morning.